The Indian Navy took redelivery of INS Sindhurakshak following the completion of the boat’s mid-life refit at the Zvezdochka shipyard in Severodvinsk on 26 January. During a two-year overhaul, the 1997-built vessel was retrofitted with the Klub-S cruise missile system for 200km range 3M54E1 anti-ship and 3M14E land attack cruise missiles, along with a range of Indian-made systems, including a hydro-acoustic ‘USHUS’ sonar, a CCS-MK radio-communication system and Porpoise Electronic Support Measures.

The 2,300-tonne diesel-electric submarine is the seventh and last of the navy’s ten Project 877EKM (Kilo class) fleet to be refitted in Russia and the only one to be returned during ice conditions. Attention has now turned towards building their replacements.

A global tender for six AIP-capable submarines, designated Project 75-I, is expected to be issued soon with India showing interest in Russia’s Amur 1650, the French-designed Scorpené, Spain’s S-80 and the German Type 214.

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